Malcolm Llywelyn

Malcolm Llywelyn

Malcolm Llywelyn is a published writer and historian, see

Harri Webb and Merthyr Tydfil
Thursday, 17 March 2022 20:26

Harri Webb and Merthyr Tydfil

Published in Poetry

Harri Webb and Merthyr Tydfil

2020 was the hundredth anniversary of the birth of the poet Harri Webb, born on 7 September 1920 at Sketty, Swansea. He left Swansea at the age of 18 after being awarded a scholarship to Magdalen College, Oxford to study Modern Languages. Harri Webb was a prolific writer of poems, prose and political commentary. His close affinity to Swansea stayed with him until his final days when he resolved to move to a nursing home in his hometown. He died in his sleep in the early hours of New Year's Eve in 1994, a 'Swansea Jack' from birth to death.

Harri Webb was appointed Librarian at the Dowlais Branch Library in Merthyr Tydfil in 1954, which started his close association with this once radical town in Welsh history. As a Welsh republican he became a well-known, colourful character, who took an interest in the local history of the town. He learnt Welsh in his early adulthood and adopted the Dowlais dialect of the language, and was one of the founder members and chairman of the eisteddfod in Merthyr Tydfil. A 'squat' in Garth Newydd in the town was his home for 12 years where he was joined by other patriots, including his friend Meic Stephens. The house became a centre for Nationalist activities and the 'Free Wales' pirate radio was broadcast from an attic in the house in response to the ban on political broadcasts by Plaid Cymru. 

He became  a close friend of the local M.P. Stephen Owen Davies, who was fondly known as S.O. and was the longest standing member of parliament for Merthyr Tydfil, from 1934 to his death in 1972. S.O. was a sincere and uncompromising socialist in his views and actions and he clashed with his own Labour government and local party on occasions. Conflict with his local constituency party resulted in S.O. being deselected as the Labour candidate in 1970 on the expressed  grounds of his age - he was then aged 84 years. Harold Wilson called a snap election in June 1970 and S.O. responded by standing for re-election as an Independent Socialist. He gained overwhelming support from the people of Merthyr Tydfil and he was ably supported by many young people, helping him to defeat the official Labour candidate by the resounding majority of 7,467. He later politely declined the offer of the freedom of the borough by the local council, stating that the confidence of the people of Merthyr Tydfil shown to him at the election was enough. 

S.O. died on 25th February 1972, at the Merthyr Tydfil General Hospital following a short illness. The funeral was held at Soar-Ynysgau Chapel. A plaque in his memory was unveiled at  Penydarren Park in 2013. 

The General Election of June 1970 was the first time for 18-21 year olds to achieve the vote and there is little doubt that S.O.'s  re-election owed much to the enthusiastic campaigning of his young supporters. The poet Harri  Webb and good friend of S.O. recalled the great support the veteran socialist received from youthful Welsh nationalists:

Here  was an old man, said to be older than he gave out, impeccably garbed in fashion of the thirties at the latest; the striped trousers, the long black overcoat, the immaculate silk scarf, the venerable white hair under the broad-brimmed black silk hat. And here were his most conspicuous campaigners - a harum-scarum bunch, their leather jackets and blue jeans emblazoned with the Eagle of Snowdon, the Dragon's Tongue and the menacing, sharp-pointed Triban. It was an irresistible combination. The Old Gang did not know what had hit them.   

To the Memory of a Friend

by Harri Webb

The kind old eyes are closed at last                                            
That mirrored memories of a past
When all our valleys rose as one
To see a people's justice done.
He strode those bitter barren years
With pride that banished doubts and fears
And in that voice that challenged wrong
His father's wit, his mother's song.
Rang out again from vanished days
To lead our land in Freedom's ways.
And in the winter of his time
When generous thoughts were held a crime,
He put to flight the sons of shame
Who had usurped proud Labour's name.
With him age comes to its end,
So much has died with this old friend,
But much lives on, his faith, his strength,
His vision that all men at length
Would walk in Freedom on this earth
And a new world would be brought to birth.
Old warrior, rest, after long strife,
Yours was no vain or waste life,
Although the struggle's not yet done,
We promise you, it shall be won.

To the Memory of a Friend was written by Harri Webb in 1972. The poem is Harri Webb's tribute to his old friend S.O. Davies, who he met when he lived in Dowlais.

Merthyr Tydfil, its history and people feature in several of the poems written by Harri Webb. The Old Parish Churchyard was written by Harri Webb in 1965. The poem is set in St Tydfil's Parish Church. "New Flats" in the poem probably refers to Caedraw Flats. The "White Tip" was a tip of waste material above Merthyr Tydfil from the Dowlais ironworks, known locally as the 'Whitey'.


The Chapel of St. Tydfil became the Parish Church in the 16th century. The town achieved borough status in 1905/08. The motto on the Borough Coat of Arms, 'Nid Cadarn ond Brodyr Dde' – Not force, but fellowship, adopted from the original  motto of Edward Williams -  Iolo ap Morganwg, was introduced by his son Taliesin ab Iolo.  (Merthyr Tydfil).

The Old Parish Churchyard

by Harri Webb

I share this churchyard Sunday silence with
A nibbling sheep, another stray presence
Whose mind inherits a pattern laid down
Before Tydfil's bones. Now we both browse
About her abandoned alter. The crisp cropping
Is louder than the traffic that buzzes
Around the roundabout just beyond the railings
Massive with rust. A few yards of grass
And straggling nameless bushes insulate
The churchyard, the Sunday, the afternoon
From a world in which there are no more
Churchyards, Sundays or afternoons.
Here they all lie, the people of This Village,
Of This Parish, under flaking local stone
Lettered in simple elegance in the
Ceremonial English of the Welsh-speaking dead:
The farmers, the lieutenants of industry
(The captains, of course, are interred elsewhere),
Some who did good, remembered by the student,
But mostly forgotten, and even these names
Only the literate generations floodlit
Between the green committals and the crematoria
Of all the dead of Wales, a land where only
The dead are secure in their inheritance.
Caved-in table-tombs, expressive once
Of aspirations in a social order, up-end
Their rotten limestone in untidy chaos.
Frost and neglect have eroded the epitaphs
Composed with such care, and now nobody bothers
Even to desecrate. The kindly, tired grass
Is doing its best to hide total abandonment.
Outside the churchyard wall the new flats
Rear their functional hutches, the smooth roads
sweep over the old slums. Along the river bank
The rubble of the past is pounded to foundations
For a better world. Up on the White Tip,
Ridges of late snow gleam in weak sunshine
Like tattered banners in an old battle.
A sly wind snipes from the river Taff;
There are withdrawals, advances, but, in this land,
No victory, no defeat. At my approach
The sheep lifts her head, her twin lambs
Start up from the tombstones and scamper in their spring. 

The Lamb, a public house in Castle street, built in the 1850s in  the once notorious 'China' area was  described by his friend Dr Meic Stephens, editor of the book 'Collected Poems of Harri Webb', as having had "a raffish clientele of regular drinkers and pint-pot patriots". It was a haunt for colourful characters including Harri Webb himself, who immortalised this drinking-haunt for patriots and rugby supporters in his poem 'The Lamb', written in 1963. It was also the backdrop for a photograph of the performers of Harri Webb's great work The Green Desert which was performed and recorded in 1971.   


The Lamb in 1971 with the Hennessys, Margaret John, Heather Jones and Ray Smith, the performers of The Green Desert and its author Harri Webb and Meredydd Evans.

The Lamb

 by Harri Webb

There's a town called Merthyr Tydfil
Where no one gives a damn
There are seven hundred pubs there
But the best one is The Lamb.
It stands upon the corner
Of Glebeland and Castle Street,
And there from noon to midnight
All honest drinkers meet.
The landlord is a character
Of universal fame,
Though I'm sorry for the moment
I can't recall his name.
But whatever you think about him
His beer is of the best,
And discriminating drinkers
Will quaff his ale with zest.
The high and lofty ceilings
Are with colour all aglow,
'Tis said that they were painted
By Michelangelo.
The walls are decked with tapestry,
The floors with carpets rich,
And when you've had a skinful
You can't tell which is which.
As everyone gets plastered
The repartee is prime,
And the landlord's called a bastard
If he won't serve after time.
The glory of this tavern
Is its famous rugby team,
'Tis said by all and sundry
Their playing's like a dream.
So let us all raise our glasses
And down many a pint and dram,
And all join in the chorus
Of Worthy is The Lamb!         

Picture10 resized

The iconic Cyfarthfa Castle stands as a symbol of the pillage of the mineral wealth of Merthyr Tydfil by the four major ironworks of Cyfarthfa, Dowlais, Penydarren and Plymouth. Cyfarthfa which means: Place of the barking dogs, the name may derive from a 'meeting- place for hunters'. The iron works at Cyfarthfa was developed by Richard Crawshay in the 18th century. It was the wealthiest ironworks in the world in 1811 and Admiral Nelson visited Cyfarthfa in 1802. Cyfarthfa Castle was built by William Crawshay junior in 1825 at the cost of £30.000. It was purchased by Merthyr Tydfil Council for £18.000 in 1908 and converted into a grammar school, museum and art gallery by 1913.                                                                    

The Ironmaster Robert Thompson Crawshay, son of William Crawshay is buried under a heavy stone slab in Vaynor Churchyard with the inscription 'God forgive me.' The Church Tafarn stands next to the church and is the subject of the poem 'Big Night' written by Harri Webb in 1959. The poem first appeared under the title 'Disgraceful Conduct'. Meic Stephens, editor of The Collected Poems of Harri Webb, changed the title to 'Big Night' with the permission of the poet. The poem describes one of many nights out at the legendary tavern near Merthyr Tydfil.       

Picture5 resized

Vaynor Church

Big Night

by Harri Webb

We started drinking at seven
And went out for a breather at ten,
And all the stars in heaven
Said: Go back and drink again.
Orion was furiously winking
As he gave us the green light
So we went back in to our drinking
Through the breakneck Brecknock night.
We were singers, strongmen and sages,
We were witty and wise and brave,
And all the ghosts of the ages
Applauded from Crawshay's grave.
The tipsy Taff was bawling
A non-traditional tune
And the owls of Pontsarn were calling
Rude names at the frosty moon.
And homeward we were swaggering
As the Pandy clock struck three
And the stars of the Plough went swaggering
From Vaynor to Pengarnddu.   

Dowlais: which means black brook. 'Dow' is derived from 'du' which is Welsh for black and 'lais' from 'glais'  which is a common word for a brook in south Wales. The name probably referred to the shaded or dark colour of the river bed.  The village developed around the Dowlais ironworks. It was under the management of  Josiah John Guest that the ironworks developed to become the largest ironworks in the world with a workforce of 5000 in the 1840s. Josiah John Guest was born in Dowlais in 1785. He was a  generous benefactor in his community funding schools, workmen's libraries and Dowlais Church. He became the first M.P. to represent Merthyr Tydfil in 1832. Lady Charlotte Guest, his wife, was English by birth and learned Welsh well enough to enable her to be the first to translate the Welsh tales of the Mabinogi into English in 1849. The Reverend Thomas Price (Carnhuanwc), the Welsh  scholar, patriot  and genius of a man, assisted Lady Guest with the translation. The Dowlais Iron Company imported iron ore from Spain and houses were built to accommodate the  immigrants from Spain and a street in Dowlais, Alphonso Street was named after Alphonso XIII of Spain.


 Dowlais blast furnace

Dowlais Stables were built in 1820 by Sir Josiah John Guest to accommodate hundreds of horses used for haulage by the Dowlais Iron Company. Soldiers were based at the building for several years following the Merthyr Riots of 1831. Lady Charlotte Guest established classrooms in the stables building to educate children of the Iron Company workforce until Dowlais schools were built in 1854/55. In the 1980s, the Stables were transformed into flats for the elderly while still maintaining the original building with the facade, entrance block and flanking pavilions.


Dowlais stables

Dowlais written by Harri Webb in 1989, was his last poem. The poem celebrates the iron-town of Dowlais, the place where, according to his friend Meic Stephens, Harri Webb "was happiest and which left the most lasting mark on his poetry". Note: 'Lusiads' is an epic poem by Luis de Camoes in the 16th century, which relates to the exploits of Vasco da Gama, who first discovered a sea-route to the East in 1498. 


by Harri Webb

That life of wonder in the Lusiads
When all the marvels of the eastern sea
Sparkled and shone in endless mystery
To daze the hungry eyes of Vasco's lads
With scenes undreamt of, isles of luxury,
Promise of pleasure, loot and mastery,
Empire unheard of opulent dowry,
Indies on Indies dazzling myriads,
Was mine when on an iron January day
I first saw Dowlais on its iron hill
And all was iron, like its history,
The stone, the scowling church, the air
All gave me welcome and all said
At last, after long wandering, you're there.  

Illustrations appear with the permission of the late Dewi Bowen, a local artist and copyright for the poems of Harri Webb was obtained from the late Dr Meic Stephens. Reference has also been made to 'The Collected Poems of Harri Webb' by Dr Meic Stephens. The selection of Harri Webb's poems is from the book 'Merthyr Tydfil Places make History.' For more information see: Books available by post by contacting: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The Merthyr Rising
Wednesday, 20 October 2021 09:31

The Merthyr Rising

Published in Poetry

The Rising in Merthyr Tydfil in June 1831, led by ironstone miners and puddlers under a flag bathed in calves' blood, was a notable event in the history of the town. It was a rebellion against the repressive and exploitative policies of the ironmasters in which 24 men, women and children were killed, and some soldiers were injured.


Soldiers of the 93 Regiment Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders

A court case followed and two men were singled out, Richard Lewis (Dic Penderyn)  and his cousin  Lewis Lewis (Liwsyn yr Heliwr or Lewis the huntsman), who were condemned to death. The sentence of Lewis Lewis was later commuted to transportation for life. A petition on behalf of Dic Penderyn was signed by 11,000 people and representations made by the Quaker Joseph Tregelles Price before the Home Secretary Lord Melbourne proved to be of no avail and the verdict was upheld.


Dic Penderyn, the condemned man.

Richard Lewis (Dic Penderyn) 1808 - 1831

A native of the Aberafan district, the son of a Lewis Lewis, Richard lived in Pyle and later worked as a haulier in Penderyn, which may  be the origin of  his legendary name Dic Penderyn. Little is known about his history until his life except that he was a miner and a married man, aged 23 in Ynysgau in Merthyr Tydfil during the Rising of 1831. He was present during the scuffle when several soldiers were injured on the 2 June 1831, although little evidence is available on his actual role in the action. Dic Penderyn was arrested and charged with 'riotous assembling at Merthyr Tydfil' and wounding Private Donald Black, a soldier of the 93rd Regiment of the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders. He was hanged at Cardiff goal on 13th August; his final words were "O Arglwydd, dyma gamwedd" (Oh Lord, this is an injustice).

It was later established that Dic Penderyn was innocent of the charge when in 1874, Rev. Evans Evans, a Congregational minister, said that a man called Ianto Parker had made a deathbed confession admitting that he had stabbed the soldier and fled to America to avoid capture. James Abbott, a local hairdresser, also admitted that he had lied under oath in his testimony against Dic Penderyn, claiming he had been instructed to do so by Lord Melbourne. Dic Penderyn became known as a martyr and working-class hero.


 Dic Penderyn, martyr of the working class


Memorial plaque erected outside Merthyr Tydfil Central Library

Dic Penderyn was buried at St Mary's Churchyard in Port Talbot and a memorial was placed there by local trade unionists in 1966. A plaque to his memory can be found at the entrance to Cardiff market on St Mary's street, the place of his execution. In 1977 a memorial plaque was unveiled outside Merthyr Tydfil Central Library by Len Murray, General Secretary of the TUC.


Lewis Lewis (Lewsyn yr Heliwr) 1793 - 1848

 Lewis Lewis was the leading personality and folk hero of the Merthyr Rising, according to historian Gwyn Alf Williams. Born in Blaen Cadlan in Cwm Cadlan, the son of Lewis Jenkin Lewis, a butcher and horse runner, he worked as an haulier carting coal from mines in Llwydcoed to limekilns in Penderyn. Described as a charismatic, respected, fair and honourable man in his community, he was identified by the ironmasters as a leader in the Rising and his oratory skills in Welsh and English inspired the protesters into action. He was one of the leaders of the attack on the house of Joseph Coffin, Clerk to the Court of Requests, and in inciting the crowd to seize the arms of the soldiers outside the Castle Hotel.

Following some initial success and faced by  the superior power of the military, the insurrection failed and men fled, including Lewis Lewis, first escaping to Penderyn before he was eventually captured hiding in the woods of Hendrebolon in Ystradgynlais. Convicted of the charges of  'Riotous Assembly' and destroying the house of Joseph Cotton, he and Richard Lewis were condemned to death. The conviction against Lewis Lewis was later commuted to transportation and he sailed for New South Wales on 26 January 1832.

The evidence given by Lewis Lewis at his trial was heard in secret and it has been assumed he turned 'King's Evidence'. It is also claimed his reprieve may have been attributed to the influence of local gentry, particularly that of his squire Morgan Morgan of Penderyn, because of  their association with horses.    


Bara neu Waed - Bread or Blood, the cry of the Rising

The Merthyr Rising

by Harri Webb

The town was Merthyr Tydfil,
The year was 'thirty-one,
'Twas there in grim Glamorgan
That mighty deeds were done.
The alien lords of iron
Who ground our people down,
Took refuge in their mansions
And the workers took the town.
Upon the hill of Dowlais
We raised a flag of red,
We burned the cruel courthouse
And we gave our people bread.
The cavalry we ambushed,
The yeomanry they ran,
The lancers they retreated
When we met them man to man.
But soldiers kept on coming,
We met them face to face
Unarmed outside the Castle Inn,
The masters' meeting place.
And at the masters' harsh command
They fired on the crowd,
And all the gutters ran with blood.
Why are such things allowed?
They hanged young Dic Penderyn
Outside of Cardiff town
And as he trod the scaffold
Heaven sent its lightnings down.
And Lewis the bold Huntsman
Was banished from the land
And all the workers had to bow
To the masters' iron hand.
But still we hold in honour
The men who struck and bled
For freedom and for justice
And to give our people bread.
And the time is surely coming
When Wales must more show
The courage of Penderyn
So many years ago.

The Merthyr Rising was written by Harri Webb in 1974. It is an inspiring poem dedicated to the brave ironworkers and coal miners, who rebelled against the dreadful conditions of starvation and exploitation they were subjected to by the ironmasters. Harri Webb gave a lecture, 'Dic Penderyn and the Merthyr Rising of 1831', which was published in 1956.